1929 to 1950 Government and private sector GDP components. Note: sharp increase in government component from 1942 to 1945, decrease in private sector component and an increase in GDP growth. Living standards in wartime period have declined despite increase in GDP. Prosperity returned as war time government spending collapsed in 1946 while private sector component nearly doubled in one year. Despite the decrease in GDP in 1946, the year was more prosperous then previous war time years with higher GDP.
Provides data on budget receipts, outlays, surpluses or deficits, Federal debt, and Federal employment over an extended time period, generally from 1940 or earlier to 2016 or 2020. To the extent feasible, the data have been adjusted to provide consistency with the 2016 Budget and to provide comparability over time.
The single most astonishing fact about foreign exchange is not the high volume of transactions, as incredible as that growth has been. Nor is it the volatility of currency rates, as wild as the markets are these days.
Instead, it’s the extent to which the market remains dollar-centric.
Consider this: When a South Korean wine wholesaler wants to import Chilean cabernet, the Korean importer buys U.S. dollars, not pesos, with which to pay the Chilean exporter. Indeed, the dollar is virtually the exclusive vehicle for foreign-exchange transactions between Chile and Korea, despite the fact that less than 20% of the merchandise trade of both countries is with the U.S.
Chile and Korea are hardly an anomaly: Fully 85% of foreign-exchange transactions world-wide are trades of other currencies for dollars. What’s more, what is true of foreign-exchange transactions is true of other international business. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries sets the price of oil in dollars. The dollar is the currency of denomination of half of all international debt securities. More than 60% of the foreign reserves of central banks and governments are in dollars.
The greenback, in other words, is not just America’s currency. It’s the world’s.
What we see here is that the banks are holding excess reserves in excess of $1.7 trillions, this is not part of the money in circulation and does not effect market prices. However, M2 money supply incresed by $3.2 trillions since the beginning of great recession in December of 2007 and this money definitely does affect prices.
Below is the M3 chart, FED stopped publishing M3 numbers so the chart only shows figures up to 2006.
Below is the Federal Reserve balance sheet dated 2013-08-14. The FED buys assets with the money it creates adding to the money supply in addition to the monetary base. Total asset figure is $3.68 trillions, this money is in circulation.